25 rules on subject and between verb agreement

Copula (linguistics)

Other copulas show more resemblances to pronouns. She was a nurse. Out of many, one. It is a feature of African American vernacular Englishbut is also used by a variety of other English speakers in informal contexts.

The Morning Star is the Evening Star. Examples in English include The more, the better. That is the case for Classical Chinese and Guaranifor instance.

However, other languages prefer a different verb for existential use, as in the Spanish version Pienso, luego existo where the verb existir "to exist" is used rather than the copula ser or estar "to be". For example, English verbs such as become, get, feel, look, taste, smell, and seem can have this function, as in the following sentences the predicative expression, the complement of the verb, is in italics: It can be put also into past tense: Zero copula In some languages, copula omission occurs within a particular grammatical context.

Similarly they may express some property, relation or position, permanent or temporary: They may also express membership of a class or a subset relationship: Meanings[ edit ] Predicates formed using a copula may express identity: I want only to be, and that is enough; I think therefore I am ; To be or not to bethat is the question.

For details, see existential clause. However, Abelard in his Dialectica made a reductio ad absurdum argument against the idea that the copula can express existence. It may inflect for grammatical categories such as tenseaspect and moodlike other verbs in the language. Forms[ edit ] In many languages the principal copula is a verbsuch as English to be, German sein, Mixtec kuu, [2] Touareg emous, [6] etc.

Another auxiliary-type usage of the copula in English is together with the to-infinitive to denote an obligatory action or expected occurrence: The hen is next to the cockerel.

The children are confused. For example, in the Irish languageis, the present tense of the copula, may be omitted when the predicate is a noun. In highly synthetic languagescopulas are often suffixesattached to a noun, but they may still behave otherwise like ordinary verbs: Some languages drop the copula in poetic or aphorismic contexts.

The Turkish first person singular copula suffix is omitted when introducing oneself. As auxiliary verbs[ edit ] The English copular verb be can be used as an auxiliary verbexpressing passive voice together with the past participle or expressing progressive aspect together with the present participle: In some other languages, such as Beja and Ketthe copula takes the form of suffixes that attach to a noun but are distinct from the person agreement markers used on predicative verbs.

In ontology it is sometimes suggested that the "is" of existence is reducible to the "is" of property attribution or class membership; to be, Aristotle held, is to be something.

The copula also reappears for stating locations: This use is illustrated in the following sentences: In these cases, the verb itself expresses a predicate that of existencerather than linking to a predicative expression as it does when used as a copula. Further restrictions may apply before omission is permitted.

As a very commonly used verb, it is likely that the copula has irregular inflected forms; in English, the verb be has a number of highly irregular suppletive forms and has more different inflected forms than any other English verb am, is, are, was, were, etc.

In informal speech of English, the copula may also be dropped in general sentences, as in "She a nurse".

Other special uses of copular verbs are described in some of the following sections. Both of the sentences are acceptable and grammatically correct, but sentences with the copula are more formal.In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated cop) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

A copula is often a verb or a verb-like word. Grammar Bytes! Grammar Instruction with Attitude. Includes detailed terms, interactive exercises, handouts, PowerPoints, videos, and more!

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25 rules on subject and between verb agreement
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