An examination of the maritime expansion in the indian and atlantic oceans

Such an arrangement — if it were to eventuate — would include a ring of bases around the Indian Ocean, from the Cape of Good Hope to Mozambique, up to Mombasa and across to the Maldives, Trincomalee and Penang.

In February the Empress of China became the first ship to sail from the United States to China, and in its wake came a steady flow of merchants in search of wealth. Maritime Strategy and Nuclear Deterrence As India has a credible minimum deterrence and a no-first use policy as the two central principles of its nuclear policy, its maritime imperative, as set out in the maritime security strategy document, is interesting.

In the wake of war between Britain and China, and the subsequent opening of diplomatic relations between those two countries, the United States moved to negotiate its own treaty with the Chinese Government.

Further, to help achieve favourable fleet operations and sustainable command of the sea, India would need to acquire bases, or access to bases, in the western Indian Ocean, such as in the Seychelles.

Such a strategy may involve India co-operating with other countries which have military assets in the Indian Ocean, such as Australia, Indonesia, Iran, France and the United Kingdom. The earlier document focussed predominantly on maritime strategic aspects, including their military dimension, though not explicitly on naval strategy.

It will also need to convert its present naval outpost in Lakshadweep into a fully-fledged operational base, with capability for power-projection, sea-denial and command of the sea, especially in relation to Pakistan.

The security strategy document, however, has focussed more on the hard power aspects, in an effort to signal a robust posture to both its adversaries and allies. Increased pressure on its eastern seaboard, however, will push India towards such an arrangement with other countries in South-East Asia and, perhaps, beyond to the South-West Pacific.

In The Global Reach of Empire, Alan Frost describes the twists and turns of British maritime expansion in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in a lively narrative account, drawing on a wealth of printed and archival sources especially from the India Office Records and the Public Records Office.

For example, consulates were established in Fiji inSamoa inand the Marshall Islands in Frost tells us that he grew up on the edge of the Pacific Ocean outside Brisbane, and his writing displays a feel for the technical achievements and hard graft of eighteenth century sailors.

Buttersworth, —60 The appeal of profits to be earned from the China trade served as the initial impetus to motivate U. Interestingly, the security strategy document also mentioned the importance of sea control and sea denial as a part of operational requirements.

During the first decades of the 19th century, U. To be sure, the above arrangement would enable the Eastern Fleet to undertake both tasks of sea-denial and sea control, with the power-projection and command of the sea resting with the Andaman and Nicobar command.

The above position could also be altered if India eventually upgrades its facilities on the strategically-located Andaman and Nicobar Islands and integrates the forces there as a part of its strategic fleet operations.

If India had to further increase its operational reach, it might then extend the eastern and western chokepoints of the Indian Ocean and maybe even reach towards the islands of the South-West Pacific. For the many other historians who are navally challenged, this book will provide an admirable survey of an important subject in British, imperial and world history, leavened with a profusion of telling details and quotations.

On a smaller scale, as U. Global Politics and Strategy, Vol. The build up of French forces in Mauritius in the s forced the British to strengthen their naval presence in the Indian Ocean, and sparked a search for new naval bases during and after the American war.

For more information, please see the full notice. We understand that, predominantly, the sea control and sea denial strategies are variations of the Alfred Thayer Mahan and Julian Corbett theories of maritime strategy.

Moreover the lack of a good naval base on the Bay of Bengal frustrated British efforts to consolidate their naval strength in south and east Asia in the s This would enable India to co-operate with other maritime powers in the Asia-Pacific as an overall part of its maritime strategic orientation.

Sea-based nuclear deterrence is one of the important tenets of the maritime security strategy document and a variation from the document. Commodore Matthew Perry The process of U. This provides an essential element in the structuring of forces against continental and maritime threats from both Pakistan and China.

Analysis The maritime security strategy was made public in January this year, before the International Fleet Review in Visakhapatnam.

United States Maritime Expansion across the Pacific during the 19th Century

On that note, we understand that, unlike the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, the Indian Ocean is predominantly controlled by maritime powers which have command of the chokepoints. This also involves, of course, diplomatic manoeuvring with countries such as the United States, Australia, France, Japan and Indonesia, each of which has its own maritime military presence in the Indo-Pacific or wider Asia-Pacific regions.

Around the British empire was confined mainly to the Atlantic and Mediterranean spheres, with thinly scattered outworks in Asia.

This would require more port visits and co-operation on the high seas. His book has been beautifully produced by the Miegunyah Press, with colored prints and excellent maps. As this trade grew, U. The Maritime Security Strategy document emphasises the importance of India adopting sea-based nuclear deterrence and a carrier task force group as a mobile base.

Making the journey to China and maintaining the U. After a swift victory over Spain, the United States set up a temporary military administration to govern the islands and promote their political, economic, and social development.

Further, as envisaged by the document, as a part of seeking to gain sea control, co-ordinated efforts will be made in conjunction with the other services. Yet Frost shows that British maritime ambition drew powerful responses from France and Spain.

India’s Evolving Maritime Security Strategy and Force Posture

In the South Pacific, India will increase its maritime engagement diplomatically, which may extend to having a military presence in one of the Pacific Island countries, probably in Fiji.

Any opinions or views expressed in this paper are those of the individual author, unless stated to be those of Future Directions International.SpeedCast, Asia-Pacific's leading satellite telecommunications service provider, has announced the launch of new expanded coverage for its global VSAT maritime network in the Indian and South Atlantic Ocean regions.

The enhanced service strengthens the reach of SpeedCast's network in these two key shipping regions, utilizing multiple satellite footprints, and now completes the VSAT coverage for all. Global Maritime Expansion Before Export (PDF) The Indian Ocean.

A map of the expeditions led by Zheng He. Vibrant trade in the Indian Ocean was due to the Indian peninsula that stretches out into the middle of the ocean and provides a safe coastline to navigate along and coves that could be used by seafarers to get protection from.

Around the British empire was confined mainly to the Atlantic and Mediterranean spheres, with thinly scattered outworks in Asia. Alan Frost describes the twists and turns of British maritime expansion in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in a lively narrative account, drawing on a wealth of printed and archival sources (especially from the.

Robert Travers The Global Reach of Empire: Britain's Maritime Expansion in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, By Alan Frost. Melbourne: Miegunyah Press, Around the British empire.

Start studying Chapter 15 History. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. The Ming emperors may have abandoned the pursuit of maritime imperial expansion because. Financial backing for Christopher Columbus's first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean came from.


Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized.

An examination of the maritime expansion in the indian and atlantic oceans
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