Writing academic english criterion publishers version level 4

Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best.

Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work.

Writing academic english criterion publishers version level 4 underlining altogether underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available as they are on any modern word processor.

When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words e. If you use the word "author" you need not also use "paper", and vice versa. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all.

Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together.

Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints.

Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper.

Department of Computer Sciences vs. Try to avoid this redundancy.

They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word or the dictionary explicitly requires themi.

My personal quirks Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead.

Others argue that omitting "I" and "we" results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct "We did X" sentences. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in "ly", though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial "ly" words like "early" as in the correct examples "an early-rising rooster" or "an early-rising English-language learner".

Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.

Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb and are therefore incorrect. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors.

That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. However, in practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like "his", "the author", etc.

In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people e. An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote.

First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations.

Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it.

In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an "en" dash, i.Collection of tips on how to improve your academic writing and other formal writing. Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing The following is a list of solutions to problems I have encountered repeatedly in my students' formal writing, such as coursework, research papers, and literature surveys.

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Writing academic english criterion publishers version level 4
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